Long-Term Pathological Follow-Up of Myocardium in a Carrier of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy With Dilated Cardiomyopathy
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked disorder, with an incidence of ≈1 in 3600 to 6000 male births. DMD is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene located at Xp21.2 and is clinically characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Some female DMD carriers show a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from creatine kinase elevation to severe muscle weakness. DCM has been reported in 8% to 18% of female DMD carriers and sometimes results in a lethal course. Here, we describe long-term follow-up observations of myocardial changes in a DMD carrier with DCM.
A 29-year-old female presented with progressive shortness of breath, increasing ankle edema, and orthopnea after a full-term normal delivery. A chest X ray showed cardiomegaly and bilateral pleural effusions, and echocardiography showed a severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 24%, with a markedly increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of 71 mm. She was admitted for heart failure, and her symptoms improved with furosemide and inotropes. There were no symptoms to suggest myopathy, and blood analysis revealed no elevation of creatine kinase (60 U/L). Her newborn boy showed extreme elevation of creatine kinase (105 868 U/L) and was diagnosed with DMD …