Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Myocarditis Listed for Heart TransplantationCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE
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Background—Myocarditis can cause dilated cardiomyopathy resulting in end-stage heart failure requiring advanced therapies. There is little contemporary information on the clinical progression, need for mechanical circulatory support, and outcomes of orthotopic heart transplantation of these patients.
Methods and Results—We queried the UNOS database (United Network for Organ Sharing) for all adults listed for orthotopic heart transplantation (2000–2015) with a listed diagnosis of myocarditis. Comparative and survival analyses were performed. Of 45 941 adults listed for orthotopic heart transplantation during this period, we identified 299 patients (0.7%) with the diagnosis of myocarditis. Compared with patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), myocarditis patients were younger (myocarditis 43.4±14.2 years, NICM 49.8±12.4 years, and ICM 57.5±8.0 years; P<0.001) and more frequently listed as status 1A (myocarditis 44% versus NICM 21% versus ICM 21%; P<0.001), with significantly higher need for mechanical ventilation (myocarditis 11% versus NICM 2% versus ICM 4%; P<0.001), biventricular mechanical circulatory support (myocarditis 19% versus NICM 2%, versus ICM 2%; P<0.001), and extracoroporeal membrane oxygenation (myocarditis 5% versus NICM 0.4% versus ICM 1%; P<0.001). Additionally, patients with myocarditis had higher likelihood of delisting for clinical improvement (hazard ratio, 2.49 [95% confidence interval, 1.63–3.79] versus ICM and hazard ratio, 2.12 [95% confidence interval, 1.40–3.22] versus NICM; P<0.001). Despite higher allosensitization, patients with myocarditis had similar post-transplant rejection, retransplantation, and survival rates compared with other groups.
Conclusions—Patients with the diagnosis of myocarditis listed for orthotopic heart transplantation are younger, sicker, and recover more frequently but require more biventricular mechanical circulatory support. Heart transplantation survival is comparable to that of patients with other types of heart failure.
- Received May 5, 2016.
- Accepted November 17, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.