Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Ameliorates Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities, Cachexia and Exercise Intolerance in Mice with Congestive Heart Failure
Background—Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cachexia (muscle wasting) and the hallmark symptom, exercise intolerance. We have previously shown that a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent antioxidant defense renders oxidative skeletal muscle resistant to catabolic wasting. Here, we aimed to identify and determine the functional role of the NO-inducible antioxidant enzyme(s) in protection against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF.
Methods and Results—We demonstrated that systemic administration of endogenous nitric oxide donor S-Nitrosoglutathione in mice blocked the reduction of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) protein expression, the induction of MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression and muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoid. We further showed that endogenous EcSOD, expressed primarily by type IId/x and IIa myofibers and enriched at endothelial cells, is induced by exercise training. Muscle-specific overexpression of EcSOD by somatic gene transfer or transgenesis [muscle creatine kinase (MCK)-EcSOD] in mice significantly attenuated muscle atrophy. Importantly, when crossbred into a mouse genetic model of CHF [α-myosin heavy chain (MHC)-calsequestrin] MCK-EcSOD transgenic mice had significant attenuation of cachexia with preserved whole body muscle strength and endurance capacity in the absence of reduced heart failure. Enhanced EcSOD expression significantly ameliorated CHF-induced oxidative stress, MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression, loss of mitochondria and vascular rarefaction in skeletal muscle.
Conclusions—EcSOD plays an important antioxidant defense function in skeletal muscle against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF.
- catabolic muscle wasting
- mitochondrial dysfunction
- vascular rarefaction
- oxidative stress
- exercise intolerance
- Received May 8, 2013.
- Accepted February 11, 2014.