Influence of Prior Heart Failure Hospitalization on Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction
Background—Hospitalization for acute heart failure (HF) is associated with high rates of subsequent mortality and readmission. We assessed the influence of the time interval between prior HF hospitalization and randomization in the CHARM trials on clinical outcomes in patients with both reduced and preserved ejection fraction.
Methods and Results—CHARM enrolled 7,599 patients with NYHA class II-IV heart failure, of whom 5,426 had a history of prior HF hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards regression models were utilized to assess the association between time from prior HF hospitalization and randomization and the primary outcome of cardiovascular death or unplanned admission to hospital for the management of worsening HF over a median of 36.6 months. For patients with HF and reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction, rates of CV mortality and HF hospitalization were higher among patients with prior HF hospitalization than those without. The risk for mortality and hospitalization varied inversely with the time interval between hospitalization and randomization. Rates were higher for HFrEF patients within each category. Event rates for those with HFpEF and a HF hospitalization in the 6 months prior to randomization were comparable to the rate in HFrEF patients with no prior HF hospitalization.
Conclusions—Rates of CV death or HF hospitalization are greatest in those who have been previously hospitalized for HF. Independent of EF, rates of death and readmission decline as time from HF hospitalization to trial enrollment increased. Recent HF hospitalization identifies a high risk population for future clinical trials in HFrEF and HFpEF.
Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00634400.
- Received December 11, 2013.
- Accepted May 23, 2014.