Table 2.

Incidence of Worsening Renal Function and Clinical Outcome in the Individual Studies

StudyTotal No. (Renal Substudy)OverallMortalityHF Hospitalization
RAASiPlaceboRAASiPlacebo
WRFNo WRFWRFNo WRFWRFNo WRFWRFNo WRFWRFNo WRF
Mortality, n (%)Mortality, n (%)Mortality, n (%)Mortality, n (%)Mortality, n (%)Mortality, n (%)HF Hospitalization, n (%)HF Hospitalization, n (%)HF Hospitalization, n (%)HF Hospitalization, n (%)
HFREF
SOLVD186377186 (31)1241 (22)84 (26)599 (21)102 (36)642 (22)NANANANA
SAVE17181359 (27)308 (19)26 (2 2)137 (17)33 (32)171 (22)16 (14)98 (12)22 (21)130 (17)
Val-HeFT84928104 (24)627 (43)71 (24)404 (19)33 (27)436 (19)NANANANA
CHARM-HFREF7156949 (26)31 (25)31 (24)152 (23)18 (33)189 (26)47 (36)151 (23)27 (50)204 (28)
RALES9166398 (49)627 (43)56 (40)256 (37)42 (70)371 (48)31 (22)117 (17)21 (35)204 (26)
EPHESUS105807133 (15)532 (11)66 (13)256 (11)67 (16)276 (11)82 (17)248 (10)79 (19)307 (12)
EMPHASIS-HF 11276348 (12)224 (11)24 (11)98 (10)24 (14)126 (13)23 (10)116 (12)35 (21)172 (17)
HFPEF
 CHARM-HFPEF783621 (22)104 (14)14 (23)47 (13)7 (20)57 (15)15(24)66 (19)9 (26)87 (22)
 I-Preserve6359572 (31)672 (20)53 (35)320 (19)19 (25)352 (21)42 (27)240 (14)18 (24)273 (16)
  • CHARM indicates Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity; EMPHASIS-HF, Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure; EPHESUS, Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study; HF heart failure; I-Preserve, Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Study; RAASi, renin–angiotensin aldosterone system inhibition; RALES, Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study; SAVE, Survival and Ventricular Enlargement; SOLVD, Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction; Val-HeFT, Valsartan Heart Failure Trial; and WRF, worsening renal function.