Table 1.

Baseline Characteristics of Included Studies for the Primary Analysis

StudyYearRandomized TreatmentTotal No. in Original StudyFollow-Up Time, dLVEF (%)Creatinine, mg/dLeGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m2Concomitant Therapy, %Medical History, %Baseline Vitals
ACEiARBBBLMRALoop DiureticDigoxinAFHTDMIschemicSBP, mm HgDBP, mm HgHR, bpm
HFREF
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)
  SOLVD181991Enalapril63771230271.2065.650186.132333819751197476
  SAVE171992Captopril22311278311.19705035352643221001137078
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB)
  Val-HeFT82001Valsartan501010002761.39350354.8857252012476
  CHARM-HFREF*72003Candesartan15691000281.1071.5575056188864286136591257372
 Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA)
  RALES91999Spironolacton1663720261.3064950115010073551227581
  EPHESUS102003Eplerenone57924803370765059613210011871
  EMPHASIS-HF112010Eplerenone2737630261.1571781987508527316631501247572
HFPEF
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB)
 CHARM-HFPEF*72003Candesartan8361000571.0073.5245057108333317639411347570
 I-Preserve62008Irbesartan35951380601.0073265059158314298928241377972
  • * Total number of patients from renal substudy as the definition of HFREF/HFPEF was different in the main trial program. AF indicates atrial fibrillation; BBL, β-blocker; CHARM, Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; EMPHASIS-HF, Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure; EPHESUS, Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study; HT, hypertension; I-Preserve, Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Study; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; RALES, Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study; SAVE, Survival and Ventricular Enlargement; SOLVD, Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction; SBP, systolic blood pressure; and Val-HeFT, Valsartan Heart Failure Trial.