Table 1.

Baseline Characteristics for All Jackson Heart Study Participants Meeting Inclusion Criteria, Stratified by Simple 7 Score Category

Simple 7 Score of 0–2Simple 7 Score of 3Simple 7 Score of 4–6P Value
n≤1936*n≤1354*n≤905*
Demographics
 Age, y59.2 (50.1 to 66.3)53.0 (43.9 to 63.7)45.5 (38.8 to 54.8)<0.0001
 Female1288 (66.5)874 (64.6)554 (61.2)0.02
 High-school graduate or GED and beyond1087 (81.2)891 (86.8)654 (93.2)<0.0001
 Upper-middle income or greater956 (57.7)719 (63.1)541 (69.1)<0.0001
 Ever smoker725 (37.5)359 (26.5)164 (18.1)<0.0001
 Weight, kg90.7 (80.0 to 104.0)87.4 (75.0 to 102.0)79.8 (67.5 to 92.0)<0.0001
 BMI, kg/m231.9 (28.5 to 36.5)30.1 (26.6 to 35.3)27.3 (23.9 to 31.9)<0.0001
 Systolic BP, mm Hg129.3 (122.0 to 140.3)124.8 (116.5 to 134.8)114.7 (107.3 to 122.0)<0.0001
 Estimated GFR, mL/min92.9 (79.1 to 106.6)96.7 (83.2 to 110.4)103.2 (90.5 to 116.2)<0.0001
Prevalent disease
 Hypertension1369 (70.7)691 (51.0)181 (20.0)<0.0001
 Diabetes mellitus605 (31.3)108 (8.0)25 (2.8)<0.0001
Simple 7 component
 Nonsmoking1545 (79.8)1222 (90.3)861 (95.1)<0.0001
 Ideal BMI64 (3.3)207 (15.3)340 (37.6)<0.0001
 Ideal nutrition3 (0.2)11 (0.8)16 (1.8)<0.0001
 Ideal physical activity100 (5.2)288 (21.3)444 (49.1)<0.0001
 Ideal BP53 (2.7)253 (18.7)585 (64.6)<0.0001
 Ideal fasting plasma glucose1112 (57.4)1275 (94.2)896 (99.0)<0.0001
 Ideal cholesterol358 (18.5)806 (59.5)760 (84.0)<0.0001
CMR parameters (n≤1188)
 LV mass index, g/m2.732.0 (28.2 to 36.9)31.1 (27.0 to 35.1)29.0 (25.3 to 32.5)<0.0001
 LV concentric remodeling index, g/mL1.1 (1.0 to 1.3)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)0.9 (0.8 to 1.1)<0.0001
 Height-indexed LVEDV, mL/m68.9 (59.1 to 82.6)71.7 (59.4 to 85.0)75.1 (62.7 to 86.2)0.02
 Stroke volume, mL69.1 (56.9 to 86.2)72.9 (61.8 to 88.1)74.2 (63.1 to 88.6)0.03
 LV ejection fraction, %61.8 (54.7 to 66.8)61.4 (55.6 to 66.6)59.8 (54.4 to 65.1)0.16
 Aortic PWV, m/s6.2 (5.0 to 8.8)5.9 (4.3 to 8.2)5.3 (4.0 to 7.4)<0.0001
Global circumferential strain, %−15.4 (−16.9 to −13.6)−15.8 (−17.6 to −14.3)−16.4 (−17.9 to −14.7)<0.0001
Biomarkers
 LDL, mg/dL140.5 (115.0 to 162.0)120.0 (99.0 to 141.0)110.0 (92.0 to 128.0)<0.0001
 HDL, mg/dL49.0 (41.0 to 60.0)51.0 (41.0 to 60.0)50.0 (42.0 to 59.0)0.66
 Triglycerides, mg/dL103.0 (76.0 to 145.5)84.0 (62.0 to 117.0)69.0 (50.0 to 97.0)<0.0001
 hs-CRP, mg/dL0.7 (0.7 to 0.8)0.7 (0.6 to 0.8)0.7 (0.6 to 0.7)<0.0001
 Hemoglobin A1c, %5.9 (5.5 to 6.5)5.5 (5.2 to 5.8)5.4 (5.1 to 5.6)<0.0001
 HOMA-IR3.5 (2.5 to 5.0)3.0 (2.1 to 4.2)2.5 (1.8 to 3.4)<0.0001
 Plasma renin activity, ng mL−1 h−10.5 (0.2 to 1.4)0.4 (0.2 to 0.9)0.3 (0.2 to 0.8)<0.0001
 Aldosterone, ng/dL4.7 (2.9 to 8.1)4.2 (2.5 to 6.8)3.7 (2.2 to 5.8)<0.0001
 Adiponectin, ng/mL4041.5 (2557.7 to 6277.4)4443.6 (2842.8 to 6895.2)4434.0 (2771.4 to 7032.1)<0.0001
 Leptin, ng/mL27.0 (13.5 to 43.0)23.5 (9.7 to 39.4)15.6 (6.2 to 30.1)<0.0001
  • Values are median (25th–75th percentile) or n (%). BMI indicates body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; GED, graduate equivalency diploma; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LV, left ventricle; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; and PWV, pulse wave velocity.

  • * Numbers are for Simple 7 score category out of a total 4195 participants in our sample population.

  • The greatest number of missing participants with CMR was in aortic PWV with 93 of 1188 missing.

  • The greatest number of missing participants was in plasma renin activity with 2321 of 4195 missing.