Table 1.

Baseline Clinical Characteristics By On-Trial ADHF Occurrence

CharacteristicsIntensive TreatmentStandard Treatment
No ADHF (N=4613)ADHF (N=65)No ADHF (N=4580)ADHF (N=103)
Age ≥75 y, n (%)1282 (28%)35 (54%)1261 (28%)58 (56%)
Chronic kidney disease, n (%)1289 (28%)41 (63%)1264 (28%)52 (51%)
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)914 (20%)26 (40%)897 (20%)40 (39%)
 Subclinical241 (5%)6 (9%)235 (5%)11 (11%)
 Clinical754 (16%)25 (36%)749 (16%)34 (33%)
Framingham 10-year CVD risk score25±1333±1825±1233±16
Framingham risk ≥15%, n (%)3502 (76%)54 (83%)3458 (76%)89 (86%)
Female sex, n (%)1661 (36%)23 (35%)1618 (35%)30 (29%)
Age, y68±975±1168±974±10
Race or ethnic group, n (%)
 Black race1357 (29%)22 (34%)1395 (31%)28 (27%)
 Hispanic499 (11%)4 (6%)476 (10%)5 (4.9%)
 Other98 (2.1%)0 (0%)77 (1.7%)1 (1%)
 White2659 (56%)39 (60%)2632 (56%)69 (67%)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Never2022 (44%)28 (43%)2035 (45%)37 (36%)
 Former1947 (42%)30 (46%)1946 (43%)50 (49%)
 Current632 (14%)7 (11%)585 (13%)16 (16%)
BMI, kg/m230±630±630±630±6
Systolic BP, mm Hg140±16142±16140±15141±19
Diastolic BP, mm Hg78±1273±1478±1274±13
Heart rate, beats per minute66±1166±1666±1267±12
SBP tertile, n (%)
 ≤132 mm Hg1567 (34%)16 (25%)1523 (33%)30 (29%)
 >132 mm Hg to <145 mm Hg1468 (32%)21 (32%)1517 (33%)32 (31%)
 ≥145 mm Hg1578 (34%)28 (43%)1540 (34%)41 (40%)
Creatinine, mg/dL1.1±0.31.4±0.51.1±0.31.2±0.4
eGFR MDRD, mL/min per 1.73 m272±2156±2472±21563±22
Ratio of urinary albumin to creatinine41±166230±55239±134133±494
Total cholesterol, mg/dL190±42187±37190±41181±42
LDL, mg/dL113±36111±32112±35104±34
HDL, mg/dL53±1453±1553±1550±13
Triglycerides, median [Q1, Q3], mg/dL106 [76, 148]112 [80, 143]106 [77, 152]116.0 [90, 157]
Fasting glucose, mg/dL99±1499±1399±13100±11
ACE inhibitors, n (%)1736 (38%)27 (42%)1652 (36%)41 (40%)
Angiotensin II antagonists, n (%)979 (21%)14 (22%)969 (21%)23 (22%)
Beta blockers, n (%)1455 (32%)27 (42%)1359 (30%)40 (39%)
CCBs, n (%)1344 (29%)33 (51%)1368 (30%)37 (36%)
Thiazide diuretics, n (%)1774 (39%)12 (19%)1838 (40%)35 (34%)
Statin use, n (%)1946 (43%)32 (51%)2025 (45%)51 (50%)
Aspirin use, n (%)2362 (51%)44 (68%)2286 (50%)64 (62%)
  • Subclinical cardiovascular disease includes ≥50% stenosis of a coronary, carotid, or lower extremity artery; abdominal aortic aneurysm ≥5 cm with or without repair; coronary artery calcium score ≥400 Agatston units; low ankle brachial index (≤0.90); left ventricular hypertrophy by computer electrocardiogram (ECG) reading, echocardiogram report, or other cardiac imaging procedure. Clinical cardiovascular disease includes myocardial infarction; acute coronary syndrome with or without resting ECG changes, ECG changes on graded exercise test, or positive cardiac imaging study; coronary revascularization; carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting; peripheral arterial disease with revascularization. ACE indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme; ADHF, acute decompensated heart failure; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CCB, calcium channel blocker; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MDRD, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.