Pericardium Intact | Pericardium Incised | Incised vs Intact | |||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Baseline | Saline | Delta 1* | Baseline | Saline | Delta 2* | Delta 3† | |||||||||||

Mean | SD | Mean | SD | Est | 95% CI | P Value | Mean | SD | Mean | SD | Est | 95% CI | P Value | Est | 95% CI | P Value | |

Primary outcome measure | |||||||||||||||||

LVEDP, mm Hg | 11 | 2 | 30 | 6 | 19 | (14, 23) | <0.001 | 11 | 4 | 18‡ | 5 | 7 | (3, 12) | 0.002 | −11 | (−17, 5) | 0.001 |

Secondary outcome measures | |||||||||||||||||

LVEDV, mL | 43 | 8 | 56 | 13 | 13 | (5, 20) | 0.005 | 44 | 5 | 66§ | 9 | 22 | (14, 30) | <0.001 | 10 | (−1, 20) | 0.077 |

RA pressure, mm Hg | 11 | 3 | 16 | 3 | 6 | (3, 8) | <0.001 | 10 | 3 | 12§ | 3 | 2 | (−0, 5) | 0.062 | −3 | (−7, 0) | 0.062 |

PA systolic pressure, mm Hg | 25 | 5 | 36 | 4 | 10 | (7, 14) | <0.001 | 27 | 6 | 32‖ | 8 | 5 | (2, 9) | 0.003 | −5 | (−9, −1) | 0.029 |

PA diastolic pressure, mm Hg | 11 | 1 | 20 | 6 | 9 | (4, 14) | 0.001 | 12 | 3 | 17 | 4 | 5 | (−0, 9) | 0.055 | −4 | (−11, 2) | 0.18 |

Cardiac output, L/min | 2.0 | 0.5 | 2.9 | 0.7 | 0.9 | (0.2, 1.8) | 0.047 | 2.5 | 0.5 | 3.2 | 0.8 | 0.6 | (−0.3, 1.5) | 0.145 | −0.3 | (−1.6, 1.0) | 0.63 |

Stroke volume, mL | 19 | 4 | 28 | 8 | 9 | (3, 14) | 0.008 | 24 | 6 | 34‖ | 9 | 10 | (4, 15) | 0.004 | 1 | (−7, 9) | 0.77 |

LVEF (%) | 51 | 15 | 57 | 17 | 6 | (−2, 14) | 0.127 | 59¶ | 12 | 55 | 11 | −4 | (−12, 4) | 0.30 | −10 | (−21, 1) | 0.077 |

Heart rate, beats per minute | 105 | 8 | 107 | 10 | 3 | (−12, 17) | 0.70 | 106 | 19 | 96 | 12 | −10 | (−25, 5) | 0.158 | −13 | (−33, 8) | 0.20 |

Est indicates estimates; LVEDP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; PA, pulmonary artery; and RA, right atrium.

↵* Delta 1 and Delta 2 are the model-based estimates of the change observed with the introduction of saline in the intact and incised pericardium conditions, respectively.

↵† Delta 3 is the difference in deltas between pericardium intact and pericardium incised.

↵‡

*P*values of <0.001 for comparison of the 2 saline conditions.↵§

*P*values of (0.001, 0.01) for comparison of the 2 saline conditions.↵‖

*P*values of (0.01, 0.05) for comparison of the 2 saline conditions.↵¶

*P*values in the range of (0.01, 0.05) for comparison of the 2 baseline conditions.