Table.

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

Placebo (12 wk), n=18Anakinra (2 wk), n=16Anakinra (12 wk), n=18P Value
Age, y61 (56–68)57 (53–66)55 (49–61)0.19
Male sex, n (%)13 (72)12 (75)13 (72)0.98
Black race, n (%)14 (78)14 (88)14 (78)0.71
Body mass index, kg/m230 (27–38)36 (29–41)34 (26–42)0.53
Coronary artery disease, n (%)6 (33)4 (25)8 (44)0.49
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)6 (33)2 (12)3 (17)0.28
Arterial hypertension, n (%)16 (89)15 (94)17 (94)0.80
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)12 (67)9 (56)8 (44)0.41
CRP, mg/L5.2 (2.0–11.9)7.2 (3.3–12.3)5.2 (2.6–13.4)0.47
NT-proBNP, ng/mL2157 (1040–3975)1302 (366–2630)890 (523–1717)0.07
NYHA class, n (%)0.52
 NYHA class II7 (39)6 (38)4 (22)
 NYHA class III11 (61)10 (63)14 (78)
DASI score23 (13–40)27 (17–47)24 (15–39)0.62
MLWHF score67 (53–76)45 (30–72)60 (47–70)0.14
Doppler echocardiography parameters
 LVEF, %28 (23–40)34 (24–40)32 (28–38)0.69
E/E′ ratio17.1 (14.2–26.1)18.7 (11.7–24.5)18.2 (11.1–24.2)0.92
Cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters
 Exercise time, min6.9 (4.4–8.3)7.4 (4.4–9.8)7.8 (6.1–10.2)0.47
 Respiratory exchange ratio1.09 (1.05–1.14)1.11 (1.03–1.17)1.13 (1.04–1.22)0.48
 Peak Vo2, mL/kg per min13.3 (12.0–15.3)14.1 (11.2–16.2)14.5 (10.6–16.6)0.87
 VE/Vco2 slope36.2 (31.9–43.4)32.7 (27.8–36.6)34.9 (29.4–41.4)0.26
 OUES1.56 (1.20–2.04)1.83 (1.40–2.18)1.70 (1.20–2.03)0.75
Heart failure therapy
 Angiotensin blockers, n (%)14 (78)14 (88)15 (83)0.75
 β-Adrenergic receptor blockers, n (%)16 (89)16 (100)16 (89)0.38
 Aldosterone blockers, n (%)11 (61)6 (38)10 (56)0.36
 Hydralazine/isosorbide, n (%)2 (11)8 (50)8 (44)0.03*
 Loop diuretics, n (%)18 (100)16 (100)18 (100)1.00
 Furosemide equivalent dose, mg40 (20–80)80 (40–120)80 (40–130)0.33
 Cardiac resynchronization device therapy, n (%)1 (6)1 (6)3 (17)0.45
 Implantable cardiac defibrillator, n (%)5 (28)6 (38)8 (44)0.58
  • CRP indicates C-reactive protein; DASI, Duke Activity Status Index; E, early mitral pulsed-wave Doppler flow velocity; E′, early mitral annulus tissue pulsed-wave Doppler velocity; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MLWHF, Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; NYHA, New York Heart Association; OUES, oxygen uptake efficiency slope; VE/Vco2 slope, minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production slope; and Vo2, volume of oxygen production.

  • * The only parameter for which the groups were significantly different at baseline.